Martin critica a teoria nas ciências sociais alegando que não podemos fazer teoria com o olhar “de fora” na terceira pessoa, e sim que devemos supor que a causalidade vem do indivíduo, em seu livro The Explanation of Social Action. Já ouvimos isso antes, não?
John Levi Martin argues in The Explanation of Social Action, among other things, that we need to understand the social world through the ways it is experienced by participants. “Sociology and its near kin have adopted an understanding of theoretical explanation that privileges ‘third-person’ explanations and, in particular, have decided that the best explanation is a ‘causal’ third-person explanation, in which we attribute causal power to something other than flesh-and-blood individuals” (kl 75). He thus criticizes sociological theorizing because it is third-person and aims to explain social arrangements in terms foreign to the participants.